Thursday, May 03, 2018

Traveling This Summer

As the school year is winding down, many are looking forward to summer and relaxation. There are lots of things to do during vacation season, and many of us will take this opportunity to travel.

See the Story Map for government websites that help you find great places to go this summer!

~by Emily Hancz



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Thursday, April 26, 2018

Trouble in the Air

On April 17th, tragedy struck as Southwest Airlines flight 1380 had to perform an emergency landing due to an engine blow-out 32,00 feet in the air. This disastrous event killed one and injured seven of the 149 passengers.

The National Transportation Safety Board is investigating the accident of the Southwest Airlines Flight 1380 and has information about this on its website. The NTSB has conducted more than 132,00 examinations of transportation calamities. The NTSB publishess accident reports that "provide details about the accident, analysis of factual data, conclusions and the probable cause of the accident, and the related safety recommendations." The Accident Reports are available on the NTSB website but take time to issue as a great deal of research needs to be conducted to piece together all of the data. An NTSB team was sent to Philadelphia, PA to examine Flight 1380's engine. The NTSB has a Response Operations Center that has contact information for reporting an incident or accident. Other information on their website includes safety advocacy and disaster assistance.

The National Transportation Safety Board is an agency under the Department of Transportation. The Department of Transportation has a mission to "Ensure our nation has the safest, most efficient and modern transportation system in the world; that improves that quality of life for all American people and communities, from rural to urban, and increases the productivity and competitiveness of American workers and businesses." 

What happened?

According to CNN's article, "Southwest pilots righted plane quickly after engine failed," the flight left La Guardia airport at 10:27 a.m. The plane was bound for Dallas but was forced to perform an emergency landing in Philadelphia. The engine blew 20 minutes into the flight, and shrapnel broke a window of the plane. CNN reports that the passengers tried to fill the hole with jackets and other items, but the objects were sucked out the window. Jennifer Riordan, 43 year-old mother of two, was partially sucked out the window. Two men were able to pull her back into the cabin, where a nurse performed CPR on her for 20 minutes but sadly she did not survive. The CNN article, "NTSB: Engine in deadly Southwest jet incident missing a fan blade,"notes that investigators from the National Transportation Safety Board noticed that one of the 24 fan blades was missing and was showing sings of metal fatigue. Navy trained captain Tammie Joe Shults was able to safely land the plane.

Should we be concerned with the safety of Southwest Airlines?

Southwest Airlines has cancelled some flights in order to inspect engines in response to this tragic incident. The Chicago Tribune article, "Southwest Airlines has been faced with fines, union safety complaints," declares that Southwest Airlines "make more trips per day than other U.S. airliners, which adds to wear and tear on parts, including the engines." Questions have been raised concerning the safety measures of the airline. Many wonder if Southwest is pushing its planes too much, jeopardizing the safety of its passengers. Southwest Airlines makes on average 5.3 flights a day, compared to other airlines that make between 2.8 and 3.4 flights a day.

Southwest has experienced other hazardous situations. There have been two accounts where the roof of a plane has been torn open. In 2005, a Southwest jet skidded off the runway onto  road, striking a car and killing a six year old boy. Furthermore, in 2016, an engine blew on a plane as it was flying over Florida.

So why have these incidents occurred?

The Chicago Tribune reported that Southwest Airlines has had to pay many fines to the Federal Aviation Administration due to the lack of inspections of airplane equipment. This article details the various episodes of improper inspections. In 2009, Southwest Airlines was fined because the company skipped the inspection of the fuselage for metal fatigue, and in 2014, they were fined for inaccurate fuselage repairs. In light of this recent event, Southwest Airlines is inspecting all fan blades.

Southwest Airline is not the only airline in trouble

On April 15th, 60 Minutes aired an episode highlighting the dangers of flying with Allegiant Air. Allegiant Air is a low-cost airline, however, 60 Minutes deemed it the most dangerous. CBS 60 Minutes found that "Public documents show an alarming number of aborted takeoffs, cabin pressure loss, emergency descents and unscheduled landings." Many believe that Allegiant Air is more concerned about profits than the safety of its passengers. The interview mentioned that the planes require a lot of maintenance but there are not enough mechanics to inspect the air crafts. The report stated that many of the Allegiant Air pilots are leery of addressing any issues, for fear of being terminated. This weariness is due to the termination of Captain Kinzer. On June 8,2015, an Allegiant plane left the St. Petersburg, Florida airport. A flight attendant informed Captain Kinzer that there was smoke in the cabin, so he turned the plane around to make an emergency landing. Once he landed, the fire rescue confirmed that there was smoke coming from the engine. Captain Kinzer made an executive decision to employ the emergency chutes to get the passengers to safety. This incident brought unwanted attention to the company and Kinzer was fired. 60 Minutes displays the termination letter, highlighting that Kinzer was laid off due to an "evacuation that was unwarranted." This event communicated the message that a pilot must perform regardless of the welfare of the passengers.

Allegiant Air fired back after 60 Minutes was aired. The CBS News article, "Allegiant Air responds to "60 Minutes" report," provides the official statement from the Allegiant Vice President of Operations. Eric Gunst stated, "It is unfortunate and disappointing that CBS 60 Minutes has chosen to air a false narrative about Allegiant and the FAA." Gunst declares that the airline follows safety procedures and regulations. However, many individuals are cautious of the airline now that this information has been made public.

For more information

The Federal Aviation Administration
This government agency provides information regarding air craft safety, rules and regulation, training and testing, data, research, air traffic, and licenses and certificates.

FAA Letter to CBS 60 Minutes
This letter responds to the concerns raised by CBS 60 Minutes regarding the safety and protocols of Allegiant Air.

Transportation and Infrastructure Committee
Describes the role of this government agency and details the Subcommittee on Aviation.


~Emily Hancz

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Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Earth Day

On April 22nd, millions of people will celebrate Earth Day and work to protect the environment. It is a day that celebrates "going green" and conserving nature.

How did Earth Day come to be?

Before 1970, there were few regulations protecting the environment. "There was no EPA, no Clean Air Act, no Clean Water Act." Factories and businesses could dispose waste into rivers without violating the law, for there were no laws against this. Factories could do whatever they pleased with no regard to the safety of the environment. There were many events that jeopardized the environment, including oil leakages, chemical exposures, and the over-hunting of species. Concerns were raised about the destruction of nature and the effect it had on society. The smog and pollution generated from factories caused many health problems for individuals, and pesticides and pollutants decreased biodiversity. Senator Gaylord Nelson from Wisconsin was troubled with these industrial impacts, and in 1970, he established Earth Day. Earth Day was a catalyst for federal organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency. The Environmental Protection Agency provides information on laws and regulations pertaining to the environment; and topics such as air, water, and pollution.

Gaylord Nelson started a grassroots movement to encourage the sustainability of the environment and the individual's responsibility to protect it. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration states that the movement was in "more than 2,000 colleges and universities, 10,000 public schools, and 20 million citizens participated- nearly 10 percent of the U.S. population at the time."

What is Earth Day?

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service states that Earth Day is a "day to raise environmental awareness and involve citizens and their communities in creating a cleaner, healthier world." Earth Day encourages individuals to reduce, reuse, and recycle in order to limit waste. There are ways for individuals to contribute to protecting the environment on a daily basis. Some tips are picking up litter, recycling, using renewable energy, picking up pet waste, etc. Every person can contribute to bettering the environment and protecting nature.

For the 2018 year, the Earth Day Network has a goal to end plastic pollution. The organization states, "From poisoning and injuring marine life to disrupting human hormones, from littering our beaches and landscapes to clogging our waste streams and landfills, the exponential growth of plastics is now threatening the survival of our planet." The organization encourages volunteers and donations to help with their endeavor. The Earth Day Network has four primary goals for tackling the plastic pollution problem. They want a "global framework to regulate plastic pollution," action from the "government and corporations to control plastic pollution," for individuals to take responsibility, and for local governments to take action.

It is crucial to protect the environment. We only have one Earth and it is our duty to make sure that nature is preserved as we are all in this together.

For more Information:

USA.gov
This website provides various topics concerning Earth and the Environment. Some issues covered are disasters and emergencies; going green; pollution issues; and wildlife and other animals.

United States Environmental Protection Agency
Protects human health and the environment. See the Environmental Topics and Laws & Regulations pages.

The Library of Congress
Provides educational materials pertaining to Earth Day.

~by Emily Hancz

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Taxes are due today!

Tax Day 2018 is April 17. The Internal Revenue Service is the nation's tax collection agency and its website includes all of the information required for tax filing:
  • Forms and Instructions
  • Make a Payment
  • File an Extension
  • Refund Status
See USA.gov's page on Taxes for additional helpful information. USA.gov's mission is to make needed government information and services available anytime and anywhere. See all of USA.gov's topic pages here.

Find answers to top questions about filing federal income tax, paying, getting refunds, and more:
  • Find tax information for after you've filed your federal taxes
  • Learn about business taxes and incentives
  • Get Help with Your Taxes
  • How to File Your Federal Taxes. Learn the steps to file, get an extension, and more
  • Get tax information in your state
  • Learn about tax relief, benefits, and incentives
For Oklahoma tax information see the Oklahoma Tax Commissions's website.


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Thursday, April 05, 2018

Oklahoma Teacher Walk Out

On April 2nd, many Oklahoma school districts shut down in support of increased funds for schools. Protesters stormed the state capitol to endorse a raise for teachers and an investment in education.

Why did the protest occur?
  
In 2008, the great recession in the U.S. left Oklahoma in an even more dire situation regarding funding for education. Tax cuts were intended to boost the economy, however, they created a larger budget gap. Tax cuts have been repeated over the last decade, decreasing the top income tax rate from 7% to 5%. These cuts have proved beneficial to Oklahoma's wealthiest individuals, but have been detrimental to the rest of its society. The cost of these cuts has been $1.022 billion, money that could have been put towards education. The Oklahoma Policy Institute declares that "Since the 2009 fiscal year, state support for schools through the state aid formula has been cut by $198 million while enrollment has grown by over 45,000 students." In response to this, class sizes have grown, programs have been cut, the number of teachers has decreased, teacher experience and quality has decreased, there are four-day weeks, limited school supplies, elimination of support staff, and there has been an increase in emergency certifications because many teachers are leaving. 

With the introduction of horizontal drilling, Legislature provided tax breaks for oil and gas. The tax breaks were supposed to end in 2015 and return the tax rate to seven percent. However, in 2014, Legislature approved a tax rate of two percent for the next three years. According to the Oklahoma Policy Institute, "The lost revenue from taxing oil and gas less than 7 percent is projected to rise to $513 million in FY 2018." The Oklahoma Policy Institute also asserted that "Oklahoma now taxes oil and gas production at rates below any other significant oil and gas producing state," at 3.2 percent. More taxes need to be placed on the gas and oil industry to drum up the revenue needed to support education. Gas and oil companies should no longer benefit at the expense of the state. It is paramount that taxes are raised and the money generated is distributed to teachers and schools. Change needs to happen and it can start with valuing education over the oil and gas industry.

Currently, Oklahoma has one of the lowest average salaries for teachers, ranking 49th in the country. Teachers' median pay is $45,000, and they have not seen a raise in over a decade. These less-than desired conditions have led to many teachers leaving the state in search for more promising jobs. In addition, Oklahoma had the largest funding cut for schools in the U.S., reaching a whopping 28.2%. It is evident that the state does not have enough money to keep up with education. 

What is being done about the issue?

A Vox article, "Oklahoma teachers are protesting 10 years of low pay. Here’s what their walkout looked like," states that "Oklahoma educators presented a list of demands to state lawmakers in February. They gave legislators about a month to pass a bill." The teachers demanded a $10,000 raise along with more school funding. This bill was passed in the state legislature on March 28th, but teachers were not satisfied with the result. According to the article, "Oklahoma Legislature passes tax hikes for teacher pay," the law calls for an increase in the average teacher pay by $6,100; a tax on gas and oil production, cigarettes, fuel, and lodging. Although, there is a raise in teacher pay, it is not enough. The CNN article, "There's a looooong history behind today's teacher walkout in Oklahoma," claims that "not enough was done to reverse decades of school funding cuts, which have totaled around $200 million since 2008." School funding has only been increased by $18 million, a long cry from the money needed. In addition, the revenue bills are expected to generate $488 million, but the 2019 costs are expected to be $543 million. This does not leave a lot of room for education.

However, the passing of this bill is a big step for the Oklahoma Legislature. According to the New York Times article, "Teachers in Oklahoma and Kentucky Walk Out: It Really Is a Wildfire," the tax on oil, gas, tobacco, and motor fuel was the "first new revenue bill to become law in Oklahoma for 28 years." Many Republicans in the Legislature are unhappy about the tax on gas and oil, because the state needs to uphold favorable standings with the companies. The article, "Nation's Least-Funded Schools Get What They Pay For," asserts that "oil and gas account for more than 11% of the economy." 

For more information

Education Week
Provides the latest news and stories on the teacher walk out.

Oklahoma State Department of Education
Provides information on the state superintendent, state education boards, and news pertaining to school districts.

U.S. Department of Education
"Our mission is to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access."


~ by Emily Hancz

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Thursday, March 29, 2018

More Updates Needed Until Automated Vehicles Are Safe


On March 18, 2018, a pedestrian was walking her bike across the street and was struck and killed by an Uber automated vehicle. This incident has brought forth many discussions regarding self-driving cars.

Evolving Technologies

Self-driving vehicles promise to provide a future of increased safety, convenience, and decreased accidents. The Department of Transportation points out that technology has continued to evolve to produce features that are already available that are associated with automated vehicles. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reports that current technologies "helps drivers avoid drifting into adjacent lanes or making unsafe lane changes, or that warns drivers of other vehicles behind them when they are backing up, or that brakes automatically if a vehicle ahead of them stops or slows suddenly." Vehicles are not yet fully automated, but technology continues to improve each day. 

Uber is just one of the companies experimenting with self-driving cars. Before the accident occurred, Uber experienced some difficulties with their test vehicles. Human intervention was frequently needed because the cars had trouble maneuvering through construction zones and aside of tall trucks. Uber was behind on their automated technology compared to their competitors, however, the company felt the pressure to have self-driving cars by the end of the year. A New York Times article, "Uber's Self-Driving Cars Were Struggling Before Arizona Crash," reports that Waymo, Google's self-driving car, could go about 5,600 miles before the driver needed to take the wheel to steer out of trouble. It was noted that Uber cars had trouble reaching 13 miles without any intervention. Uber had two people testing the cars; one to intervene if there was trouble, and the other that recorded all data in the system. However, Uber decided to merge the two jobs so that only one individual had to "operate" the vehicle. Many of the employees were "worried that going solo would make it harder to remain alert during hours of monotonous driving." Since there was discomfort on the employees' part, it took longer for the employees to be trained. Waymo also utilizes one operator, however, it requires to operators whenever "it is adding new systems or moving to a new location." The difference in the company's technology and conduct proved to be beneficial. The question remains; Why did Uber allow testing when their technology was not up to par?

Regulations and Technology

Arizona became a haven for driver-less cars because few restrictions and regulations were enforced. The New York Times article, "Where Self-Driving Cars Go to Learn," states that "Arizona deliberately cultivated a rules-free environment for driver-less cars, unlike dozens of other states that have enacted autonomous vehicle regulations over safety, taxes and insurance." In response, many tech companies went to Arizona to test out their cars.  

Regulations have been unable to keep up with the fast pace of technological advancements. Many auto safety regulations are out of date and do not apply to automated vehicles, prohibiting the improvement of these cars. The Wired article, "Outdated Auto Safety Regulations Threaten The Self-Driving Revolution," states that "Bipartisan bills - The Self Drive Act (Safety Ensuring Lives Future Deployment and Research in Vehicle Evolution) passed by the House, and the AV Start Act (American Vision for Safer Transportation Through Advancement of Revolutionary Technologies) pending in the Senate - both recognize that the federal government should continually update its automated vehicle definitions to reflect the industry's best available technical knowledge." Updates to auto regulations need to be made for their to be any future for automated cars. Search Congress.gov to find the full-text of these acts.

The Self Drive Act is a bill that was passed by the House of Representatives to "ensure the safe and innovative development, testing, and deployment of self-driving cars." The Energy and Commerce Committee points out that this bill will work to "advance safety by prioritizing the protection of consumers; reaffirm the role and responsibilities of federal and state governments; update the federal motor vehicle safety standards to account for advances in technology and the evolution of highly automated vehicles; and maximize opportunities for research and development here in the U.S. to create jobs and grow economic opportunities so that America can remain a global leader in this industry."

Science 360

Computer scientist Sebastian Thrun and his team of software engineers are creating a fleet of self-driving cars at the Google headquarters in Mountain View, California, Science of Innovation: Self-Driving Cars.

Science 360 is sponsored by the National Science Foundation, which works "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense."

For more information...

U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
Provides an archived webcast that explains the hearing regarding automated vehicles. "The hearing will explore advancements in autonomous vehicle technology and its anticipated benefits for Americans. Witnesses have been asked to testify on their continued efforts to develop automated vehicles, their views on the appropriate role of government in promoting innovation including removing unnecessary hurdles, and their strategy to grow consumer adoption of this new technology."

U.S. Department of Commerce and Economics and Statistics Administration
This report analyzes how automated vehicles will impact the economy and job opportunities.

MDriverless Cars, The Evolution of the Revolution

From Montana State University's College of Engineering, describes the importance of automated vehicles, the science behind them, and the progress made to making driver-less cars a reality.

~by Emily Hancz

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Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Sunshine Week

March 12 - 18 is Sunshine Week, launched in 2005 to promote open government. The site promotes the annual national celebration of access to pubic information and whatt it means for you and your community. It includes a toolkit, events, and the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in action.

Since 1967, the FOIA has provided the public the right to request access to records from any federal agency. It is described as the law that keeps citizens in the know about their government. Federal agencies are required to disclose any information requested under the FOIA unless it falls under one of the nine exemptions which protect interests such as personal privacy, national security, and law enforcement.

For resources at the state level, see FOIA Oklahoma.

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Daylight Saving Time

Many Americans woke up on March 12th, bleary-eyed from lack of sleep. On Sunday, March 11th, the clock sprung forward an hour in favor of a longer day. Countless individuals begrudgingly behold Daylight Saving Time as they work to adjust to a new time schedule.

Why was Daylight Saving Time created?

According to Energy.gov, "8 Things You Didn't Know About Daylight Savings," a common myth associated with Daylight Savings Time (DST), was that it was created in order to give farmers more sunlight in the summer months. However, this point of view is incorrect. DST originated in response to World War I. The Library of Congress mentions that DST was "a way of conserving fuel needed for war industries and of extending the working day." It was a way to save energy costs. Congress passed legislation on March 19, 1918. The law established Daylight Saving Time and Standard Time for the United States. The Law Library of Congress points out that Standard Time was created by "dividing the U.S. into five zones according to their longitudinal degrees." The time zones include Standard Eastern Time, Central, Mountain, Pacific, and Alaska time.

However, DST did not last long. After WWI ended, Congress saw no need for the time change and repealed the law on August 20, 1919. This law terminated DST but the five time zones were still enforced. DST was reinforced again during WWII "to promote the national security and defense." Similarly, DST was retracted in 1945, when the war came to a close.

DST was reinstated in 1966 when Congress established that DST would be in effect from "the last Sunday in April through the last Sunday in October." It was reestablished due to the Uniform Time Act, which encouraged the "widespread and uniform adoption of the time zones" and acceptance of DST.  Over the years, the law has been modified many times in correlation to the start and end times of DST. "In 1986, DST was extended by changing the beginning date to the first Sunday in April instead of the last."   

Why is DST important?

DST is defined by the clocks moving forward an hour. This year, it is enforced from March 11th, 2018 at 2:00 AM through November 4, 2018 at 2:00 AM. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 was implemented in 2007 to reduce energy consumption by increasing DST by one month. Clocks move forward an hour when DST is enforced and move back an hour when switching to Standard Time (ST). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) describes how clocks move "one hour from the evening to the morning" when switching from DST to ST, and how clocks move "one hour of daylight from morning to the evening" when converting ST to DST.

It is a confusing concept to grasp, but DST is important because not all states or countries practice it. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, Hawaii, Arizona, and various U.S. overseas territories do not follow these time changes. In addition, NIST recorded that DST is in "effect for 65% of the year." The article, "History of Daylight Saving Time in Europe," provides data and statistics for countries that have used DST in the past and the present.

There is controversy regarding the relevance of DST. It is hard to understand why it is still enforced when it often creates negative affects. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention mentions that "it takes the body up to a week to adjust" to the new time change and can lead to "sleep deprivation, reduction in performance," and an increase in "vehicle crashes." In addition, there is debate about whether DST actually saves energy. According to the New York Times article, "Daylight Saving Time Wastes Energy," it is argued that DST "reduces residential lighting, yet increases demand for heating and cooling."

With these considerations, many ask why DST is still enforced.

For more information:

NASA
Provides a chart depicting the dates and times when Daylight Saving Time is in effect in the United States and Europe from 2001 through 2015.

NIST
Provides a clock that displays the time for each time zone.

United States Department of Labor
Describes how work hours are calculated when individuals work during time changes.

~by Emily Hancz



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Women's History Month

The month of March celebrates the achievements and contributions women have made throughout history.


How did Women's History Month come to be?

Up until the 1970's, women's history was not taught in schools. In response to this, the Education Task force of Sonoma County, California dedicated a week to honor women's history. The event called for many celebrations and events in honor of the hard work of women. During this week, many of the schools designed lessons plans that focused on women. The National Women's History Project , an organization that "recognizes and celebrates the diverse and historic accomplishments of women by providing informational services and educational and promotional materials," explains that a member, Molly Murphy MacGregor, attended a meeting at Sarah Lawrence College. At the lecture, many participants learned about the success of the celebrations in Sonoma honoring women. Many decided to implement teachings about the roles of women in history in their own school districts.

Support for a Women's History week spread, and in 1980, "President Carter issued the first Presidential Proclamation declaring that the week of March 8th 1980 as National Women's History Week." The National Women's History Project asserts that "state departments of education encouraged celebrations of National Women's History Week as an effective means to achieving equity goals within classrooms."

The official website for Women's History Month, womenshistorymonth.gov, declared that in 1981, "Congress requested the President to proclaim the week of March 7, 1982 as Women's History Week." By 1986, 14 states advocated March as Women's History Month. In 1987, Congress issued March as Women's History Month and announced that every president is to recognize March as such. The White House website includes a transcript of President Trump's message proclaiming "March 2018 as Women's History Month."

The official  website for Women's History Month is sponsored by various government agencies and educational resources. The website is committed to memorializing all the contributions women have made in society. It offers a large list of exhibits and collections, audio and videos, images, and lesson plan guides for teachers. This organization strives to enrich the community with the vital role women have played throughout history.


What role do women play in history?

Women have played many vital roles throughout history Abigail Adams was married to president John Quincy Adams. She often gave advice to him and was known for letters that called for him to "Remember the Ladies." At this time, women did not have any political power, so her letters were a way to empower women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was another woman who also invested in granting women rights. She held the first organized women's suffrage organization at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. It took about 70 years for her goal to be fulfilled when women were granted the right to vote in the U.S. in 1920. Women have continued to fight for equal rights throughout all of history.

Susan B. Anthony also aided in the women's suffrage movement. The National Park Service points out that she "traveled the country to give speeches, circulate petitions, and organize local women’s rights organizations." Anthony was born in Massachuesetts and her Quaker family was anti-slavery. In addition, Anthony joined the teacher's union when she learned that female teachers were paid $2.50/month compared to men's pay of $10/month. She was involved in many reforms, and she soon became one of the icons associated with women's suffrage. The Library of Congress explains that she "co-founded the National Woman Suffrage Association along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton."

The most iconic demonstration of women's empowerment was portrayed by Rosie the Riveter and the notion of "We Can Do It" during WWII. After the United States declared war on Japan, in response to Pearl Harbor, about ten million young men were enlisted or drafted in the military. The immense number of men that went to war left a gap in the industry for producing weapons and equipment for the military. Women filled this gap and worked to provide for the war effort. The National Park Service states that the "integration of women and minorities into the workforce was initially met with resistance, however, the new opportunities for women and minorities "cracked open" the door to equal rights and would have profound impacts on the Civil Rights Movement and Women's Movement during the following decades." Rosie the Riveter became the anthem that women worked to throughout WWII and it fostered independence and equality for women. The History Channel explains that Rosie "was the star of a campaign aimed at recruiting female workers for defense industries during World War II, and she became perhaps the most iconic image of working women."

These are only a few examples of women that have contributed to the history of the United States, but many others had a profound effect on the development of women's rights. 

For more Information

Women's History Month
"The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, national Park Services, Smithsonian Institution and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum join in commemorating and encouraging the study, observance and celebration of the vital role of women in American History." 

The Law Library of Congress
This website celebrates the achievements and struggles of women.
"American women of every race, creed and ethnic background helped found and build Our Nation in countless recorded and unrecorded ways...As leaders in public affairs, American women not only worked to secure their own rights of suffrage and equal opportunity but also were principle advocates in the abolitionist, temperance, mental health reform, industrial labor and social reform movements, as well as the modern Civil Rights Movement."

The Smithsonian
The Smithsonian is holding many events celebrating women, and the website provides a calendar of the events.

National Archives
"The National Archives celebrates Women’s History Month, recognizing the great contributions that women have made to our nation. Learn about the history of women in the United States by exploring their stories through letters, photographs, film, and other primary sources."

America's Navy
The Navy celebrates Women's History Month to recognize the presence of women in the Navy. The Navy declares that women served as nurses for the Navy since the 1800's. Women were officially incorporated into the Navy in 1948 due to the Women's Armed Services Integration Act.
"Women's History Month is a time to reflect on and express gratitude to the trailblazers who demonstrated unparalleled courage, tenacity and vision, sometimes in the face of systematic headwinds, to chart a course for today's women who proudly and honorably serve in the U.S. Navy." 


~Emily Hancz

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